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Qt绘制图表 Qt绘制图表的实现

zhengcixi   2021-05-20 我要评论
想了解Qt绘制图表的实现的相关内容吗,zhengcixi在本文为您仔细讲解Qt绘制图表的相关知识和一些Code实例,欢迎阅读和指正,我们先划重点:Qt绘制图表,下面大家一起来学习吧。

1 简介

使用Qt的charts模块来绘制图表,案例来自Qt自带的demo。

charts模块简介:Qt Chars模块提供了一系列容易使用的图表组件。需要使用charts组件时,需要导入Qt Charts模块,通过如下方式:QT += charts

在安装Qt Creator的时候,需要勾选上这个模块,不然是不能使用的。

2 Qt Charts总览

Qt Chars支持绘制:坐标图、柱状图、折线图、饼图、曲线图、散点图等。

3 测试及说明

首先创建一个工程,继承至MainWindow组件。

(1)绘制折线图

折线图通过线段展示一系列相关联的点。

使用的类:QLineSeries

测试代码:

MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) :
    QMainWindow(parent),
    ui(new Ui::MainWindow)
{
    ui->setupUi(this);

    /*
     * LineChart Example
     */
    //添加一个QLineSeries实例
    QLineSeries *lineseries = new QLineSeries();
    //添加数据(点),有两种方式
    lineseries->append(0, 6);  //参数分别为横纵坐标
    lineseries->append(2, 4);
    lineseries->append(3, 8);
    lineseries->append(7, 4);
    *lineseries << QPointF(11, 1) << QPointF(13, 3) << QPointF(17, 6) << QPointF(18, 3) << QPointF(20, 2);
    //添加一个QChart实例,为了展示数据
    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->legend()->hide();  //隐藏图例
    chart->addSeries(lineseries);
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->setTitle("Simple line chart example");
    //添加一个QChartView图例
    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);  //呈现方式
    //显示
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();
}

运行测试:

(2)绘制曲线图

使用的类:QSplineSeries

测试代码:

QSplineSeries *series = new QSplineSeries();
    series->setName("spline");
    series->append(0, 6);
    series->append(2, 4);
    series->append(3, 8);
    series->append(7, 4);
    series->append(10, 5);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->legend()->hide();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple spline chart example");
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->axisY()->setRange(0, 10);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();

运行测试:

(3)绘制面积图

使用的类:QAreaSeries

测试代码:

QLineSeries *series0 = new QLineSeries();
    QLineSeries *series1 = new QLineSeries();
    *series0 << QPointF(1, 5) << QPointF(3, 7) << QPointF(7, 6) << QPointF(9, 7) << QPointF(12, 6)
             << QPointF(16, 7) << QPointF(18, 5);
    *series1 << QPointF(1, 3) << QPointF(3, 4) << QPointF(7, 3) << QPointF(8, 2) << QPointF(12, 3)
             << QPointF(16, 4) << QPointF(18, 3);

    QAreaSeries *series = new QAreaSeries(series0, series1);
    series->setName("Batman");
    QPen pen(0x059605);
    pen.setWidth(3);
    series->setPen(pen);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple areachart example");
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->axisX()->setRange(0, 20);
    chart->axisY()->setRange(0, 10);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();

运行测试:

(4)绘制散点图

使用的类:QScatterSeries

测试代码:

QScatterSeries *series0 = new QScatterSeries();
    series0->setName("scatter1");
    series0->setMarkerShape(QScatterSeries::MarkerShapeCircle);
    series0->setMarkerSize(5.0);

    QScatterSeries *series1 = new QScatterSeries();
    series1->setName("scatter2");
    series1->setMarkerShape(QScatterSeries::MarkerShapeRectangle);
    series1->setMarkerSize(10.0);

    QScatterSeries *series2 = new QScatterSeries();
    series2->setName("scatter3");
    series2->setMarkerShape(QScatterSeries::MarkerShapeRectangle);
    series2->setMarkerSize(15.0);

    series0->append(0, 6);
    series0->append(2, 4);
    series0->append(3, 8);
    series0->append(7, 4);
    series0->append(10, 5);
    *series1 << QPointF(1, 1) << QPointF(3, 3) << QPointF(7, 6) << QPointF(8, 3) << QPointF(10, 2);
    *series2 << QPointF(1, 5) << QPointF(4, 6) << QPointF(6, 3) << QPointF(9, 5);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series0);
    chart->addSeries(series1);
    chart->addSeries(series2);
    chart->setTitle("Simple scatterchart example");
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->setDropShadowEnabled(false);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();

运行测试:

(5)绘制柱状图

使用的类:QBarSeries

测试代码:

QBarSet *set0 = new QBarSet("Jane");
    QBarSet *set1 = new QBarSet("John");
    QBarSet *set2 = new QBarSet("Axel");
    QBarSet *set3 = new QBarSet("Mary");
    QBarSet *set4 = new QBarSet("Samantha");

    *set0 << 1 << 2 << 3 << 4 << 5 << 6;
    *set1 << 5 << 0 << 0 << 4 << 0 << 7;
    *set2 << 3 << 5 << 8 << 13 << 8 << 5;
    *set3 << 5 << 6 << 7 << 3 << 4 << 5;
    *set4 << 9 << 7 << 5 << 3 << 1 << 2;

    QBarSeries *series = new QBarSeries();
    series->append(set0);
    series->append(set1);
    series->append(set2);
    series->append(set3);
    series->append(set4);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple barchart example");
    chart->setAnimationOptions(QChart::SeriesAnimations);

    QStringList categories;
    categories << "Jan" << "Feb" << "Mar" << "Apr" << "May" << "Jun";
    QBarCategoryAxis *axis = new QBarCategoryAxis();
    axis->append(categories);
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->setAxisX(axis, series);

    chart->legend()->setVisible(true);
    chart->legend()->setAlignment(Qt::AlignBottom);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();

运行测试:

(6)绘制饼图

使用的类:QPieSeries

测试代码:

QPieSeries *series = new QPieSeries();
    series->append("Jane", 1);
    series->append("Joe", 2);
    series->append("Andy", 3);
    series->append("Barbara", 4);
    series->append("Axel", 5);

    QPieSlice *slice = series->slices().at(1);
    slice->setExploded();
    slice->setLabelVisible();
    slice->setPen(QPen(Qt::darkGreen, 2));
    slice->setBrush(Qt::green);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple piechart example");
    chart->legend()->hide();

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();

运行测试:

完整的测试代码:

#include "mainwindow.h"
#include "ui_mainwindow.h"
#include <QtCharts>
#include <QPainter>
#include <QPainterPath>
#include <QtMath>
#include <QImage>

MainWindow::MainWindow(QWidget *parent) :
    QMainWindow(parent),
    ui(new Ui::MainWindow)
{
    ui->setupUi(this);

#if 0
    /*
     * LineChart Example
     */
    //添加一个QLineSeries实例
    QLineSeries *lineseries = new QLineSeries();
    //添加数据(点),有两种方式
    lineseries->append(0, 6);  //参数分别为横纵坐标
    lineseries->append(2, 4);
    lineseries->append(3, 8);
    lineseries->append(7, 4);
    *lineseries << QPointF(11, 1) << QPointF(13, 3) << QPointF(17, 6) << QPointF(18, 3) << QPointF(20, 2);
    //添加一个QChart实例,为了展示数据
    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->legend()->hide();  //隐藏图例
    chart->addSeries(lineseries);
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->setTitle("Simple line chart example");
    //添加一个QChartView图例
    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);  //呈现方式
    //显示
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();
#endif

#if 0
    /*
     * SplineChart Example
    */
    QSplineSeries *series = new QSplineSeries();
    series->setName("spline");
    series->append(0, 6);
    series->append(2, 4);
    series->append(3, 8);
    series->append(7, 4);
    series->append(10, 5);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->legend()->hide();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple spline chart example");
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->axisY()->setRange(0, 10);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();
#endif

#if 0
    /*
    * AreaChart Example
    */
    QLineSeries *series0 = new QLineSeries();
    QLineSeries *series1 = new QLineSeries();
    *series0 << QPointF(1, 5) << QPointF(3, 7) << QPointF(7, 6) << QPointF(9, 7) << QPointF(12, 6)
             << QPointF(16, 7) << QPointF(18, 5);
    *series1 << QPointF(1, 3) << QPointF(3, 4) << QPointF(7, 3) << QPointF(8, 2) << QPointF(12, 3)
             << QPointF(16, 4) << QPointF(18, 3);

    QAreaSeries *series = new QAreaSeries(series0, series1);
    series->setName("Batman");
    QPen pen(0x059605);
    pen.setWidth(3);
    series->setPen(pen);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple areachart example");
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->axisX()->setRange(0, 20);
    chart->axisY()->setRange(0, 10);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();
#endif

#if 0
    /*
    * QScatterChart Example
    */
    QScatterSeries *series0 = new QScatterSeries();
    series0->setName("scatter1");
    series0->setMarkerShape(QScatterSeries::MarkerShapeCircle);
    series0->setMarkerSize(5.0);

    QScatterSeries *series1 = new QScatterSeries();
    series1->setName("scatter2");
    series1->setMarkerShape(QScatterSeries::MarkerShapeRectangle);
    series1->setMarkerSize(10.0);

    QScatterSeries *series2 = new QScatterSeries();
    series2->setName("scatter3");
    series2->setMarkerShape(QScatterSeries::MarkerShapeRectangle);
    series2->setMarkerSize(15.0);

    series0->append(0, 6);
    series0->append(2, 4);
    series0->append(3, 8);
    series0->append(7, 4);
    series0->append(10, 5);
    *series1 << QPointF(1, 1) << QPointF(3, 3) << QPointF(7, 6) << QPointF(8, 3) << QPointF(10, 2);
    *series2 << QPointF(1, 5) << QPointF(4, 6) << QPointF(6, 3) << QPointF(9, 5);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series0);
    chart->addSeries(series1);
    chart->addSeries(series2);
    chart->setTitle("Simple scatterchart example");
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->setDropShadowEnabled(false);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();
#endif

#if 0
    /*
    * BarChart Example
    */
    QBarSet *set0 = new QBarSet("Jane");
    QBarSet *set1 = new QBarSet("John");
    QBarSet *set2 = new QBarSet("Axel");
    QBarSet *set3 = new QBarSet("Mary");
    QBarSet *set4 = new QBarSet("Samantha");

    *set0 << 1 << 2 << 3 << 4 << 5 << 6;
    *set1 << 5 << 0 << 0 << 4 << 0 << 7;
    *set2 << 3 << 5 << 8 << 13 << 8 << 5;
    *set3 << 5 << 6 << 7 << 3 << 4 << 5;
    *set4 << 9 << 7 << 5 << 3 << 1 << 2;

    QBarSeries *series = new QBarSeries();
    series->append(set0);
    series->append(set1);
    series->append(set2);
    series->append(set3);
    series->append(set4);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple barchart example");
    chart->setAnimationOptions(QChart::SeriesAnimations);

    QStringList categories;
    categories << "Jan" << "Feb" << "Mar" << "Apr" << "May" << "Jun";
    QBarCategoryAxis *axis = new QBarCategoryAxis();
    axis->append(categories);
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->setAxisX(axis, series);

    chart->legend()->setVisible(true);
    chart->legend()->setAlignment(Qt::AlignBottom);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();
#endif

#if 0
    /*
    * Piechart Example
    */
    QPieSeries *series = new QPieSeries();
    series->append("Jane", 1);
    series->append("Joe", 2);
    series->append("Andy", 3);
    series->append("Barbara", 4);
    series->append("Axel", 5);

    QPieSlice *slice = series->slices().at(1);
    slice->setExploded();
    slice->setLabelVisible();
    slice->setPen(QPen(Qt::darkGreen, 2));
    slice->setBrush(Qt::green);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple piechart example");
    chart->legend()->hide();

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    this->setCentralWidget(chartView);
    this->resize(400, 300);
    this->show();
#endif
}

MainWindow::~MainWindow()
{
    delete ui;
}

还有一些图形及主题等设置,后续待补充。

4 其它

(1)如何在QWidget中绘制QCharts

上面的代码中都是在QMainWindow中绘制的QCharts,但如果我们要在QWidget中绘制QCharts,那么如何实现呢?

方式一:

可选择的解决方法:在ui中拖一个水平布局,把chartView放到水平布局。

测试代码:

Widget::Widget(QWidget *parent) :
    QWidget(parent),
    ui(new Ui::Widget)
{
    ui->setupUi(this);

    /*
    * BarChart Example
    */
    QBarSet *set0 = new QBarSet("Jane");
    QBarSet *set1 = new QBarSet("John");
    QBarSet *set2 = new QBarSet("Axel");
    QBarSet *set3 = new QBarSet("Mary");
    QBarSet *set4 = new QBarSet("Samantha");

    *set0 << 1 << 2 << 3 << 4 << 5 << 6;
    *set1 << 5 << 0 << 0 << 4 << 0 << 7;
    *set2 << 3 << 5 << 8 << 13 << 8 << 5;
    *set3 << 5 << 6 << 7 << 3 << 4 << 5;
    *set4 << 9 << 7 << 5 << 3 << 1 << 2;

    QBarSeries *series = new QBarSeries();
    series->append(set0);
    series->append(set1);
    series->append(set2);
    series->append(set3);
    series->append(set4);

    QChart *chart = new QChart();
    chart->addSeries(series);
    chart->setTitle("Simple barchart example");
    chart->setAnimationOptions(QChart::SeriesAnimations);

    QStringList categories;
    categories << "Jan" << "Feb" << "Mar" << "Apr" << "May" << "Jun";
    QBarCategoryAxis *axis = new QBarCategoryAxis();
    axis->append(categories);
    chart->createDefaultAxes();
    chart->setAxisX(axis, series);

    chart->legend()->setVisible(true);
    chart->legend()->setAlignment(Qt::AlignBottom);

    QChartView *chartView = new QChartView(chart);
    chartView->setRenderHint(QPainter::Antialiasing);

    ui->horizontalLayout->addWidget(chartView);
}

运行测试:

这种方式每次是在水平布局中添加一个QWidget,有时候不太好用。

方式二:

将QWidget提升为QChartView。

在代码中直接使用下面的代码就可以显示了:

ui->widget_factory->setChart(chart);
ui->widget_factory->show();

(2)如何在柱状图中顶端带数字显示

只需要添加下面两句代码:

  series->setLabelsPosition(QAbstractBarSeries::LabelsInsideEnd);
series->setLabelsVisible(true);

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